Single bonds occur when two electrons are shared and are composed of one sigma bond between the two atoms. Double bonds occur when four electrons are shared between the two atoms and consist of one sigma bond and one pi bond.
Each atom has 1 valence electron, so they can just share, giving each atom two electrons each.
1) Covalent bonds are formed between atoms through simultaneous ‘sharing’ of electrons. 2) More than one pair of electrons can be shared between atoms to form double or triple covalent bonds.
A covalent bond involves electrons being shared between atoms. The most stable state for an atom occurs when its valence electron shell is full, so atoms form covalent bonds, sharing their valence electrons, so that they achieve a more stable state by filling their valence electron shell.
S = N – A. S = shared electrons : total number of electrons that will be shared and therefore are the bonding electrons. Divide “S” by 2 and you’ll have the number of bonds (lines) in the structure. N = needed electrons : needed is based on the octet rule which is 8 electrons for all atoms except hydrogen which is 2.
A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. These electron pairs are known as shared pairs or bonding pairs, and the stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms, when they share electrons, is known as covalent bonding.
In a single bond one pair of electrons is shared, with one electron being contributed from each of the atoms. Double bonds share two pairs of electrons and triple bonds share three pairs of electrons. Bonds sharing more than one pair of electrons are called multiple covalent bonds. FIGURE 3-4a.
Two oxygen atoms in a oxygen molecule share two electrons. Oxygen atoms only have 6 valence electrons (electrons in the outer shell).
triple bond, in chemistry, a covalent linkage in which two atoms share three pairs of electrons, as in the nitrogen molecule, N2, or acetylene, C2H2.
C) It is not possible for two atoms to share more than two electrons.
Triple bonds occur when six electrons are shared between the two atoms and consist of one sigma bond and two pi bonds (see later concept for more info about pi and sigma bonds).
The maximum covalent bonds in a molecule or ion is seven.
Its hydrogen compound is hydrogen fluoride, HF, in which the F atom is surrounded by three lone pairs and one bonding pair (see right).
The no. of electron in oxygen atom is 8, and is 1 for a hydrogen atom. So overall in H2O molecule we have 10 electrons( i.e 8 electron from oxygen & 2 electrons one from each hydrogen.)